February 10, 2023

There are three main methods to produce NMN: chemical synthesis, fermentation, and enzymatic synthesis.

Firstly, chemical synthesis is a relatively simple method for producing NMN, the cost of this method is much lower than the other two methods. However, the chemical synthesis method usually requires several steps, and the overall yield is not high. Product purity can be improved through further separation and purification.

NMN has two types of diastereomers: α-NMN and β-NMN. The pure β-NMN cannot be selectively synthesized by chemical synthesis, and the chiral purity of NMN synthesized by this method is always low. The by-products produced by this method are not naturally present in the human body, and most of them are chemical impurities. Although impurities are in trace amounts, they can still accumulate in the body and cause prolonged harm. 

The enzyme catalysis method is the most advanced method, which simulates the metabolic pathway of NMN in the human body, expresses enzymes in vitro, and realizes in vitro enzyme catalytic reactions to produce NMN. The enzymatic production process is consistent with the process in vivo, and there are basically no additional impurities and chiral purity is above 99%.

The enzymatic method is a natural extraction of the core raw material to synthesize NMN by simulating a multi-step enzyme-catalysed reaction in an organism. The whole enzymatic method does not involve raw chemical materials, has high safety, and has high technical barriers.

Several key catalytic enzymes of biological enzyme catalysis are expensive, accounting for about 80% of the cost of the entire production process, but they are also safe and efficient production methods. KAYAJ NMN products produced by the total enzymatic method are superior to other production methods in terms of product purity, safety, and stability, and are the preferred choice of major mainstream manufacturers in the market.

Method Chemical Fermentation Enzymatic 
Organic waste YesNoNo
Chirality lowHighHigh
Technical barrierLow HighHigh
Environment friendly HighLowLow
Cost LowHighHigh
Overview of each production method

Researchers have been developing a better NMN process, and enzymatic synthesis, as a green and efficient synthesis method plays a vital role in the preparation of NMN. 


  1. Michael B S, and David A S. Why NAD+ Declines during Aging: It’s Destroyed[J]. Cell metabolism, 2016, 965- 966.

2. IMPAIRMENT OF AN ENDOTHELIAL NAD+-H2S SIGNALING NETWORK IS A REVERSIBLE CAUSE OF VASCULAR AGING[J]. Cell, 2019, 176(4): 944– 945. M S Bonkowski, A Das, M Schultz, Y Lu, J Mitchell, L Wu, L Guarente, and D Sinclair

3. Stromsdorfer K L, Yamaguchi S, Yoon M J, et al. NAMPT-mediated NAD+ biosynthesis in adipocytes regulates adipose tissue function and multi-organ insulin sensitivity in mice[J]. Cell reports, 2016, 16(7): 1851-1860.

4. Qi Shen ,Shi-Jia Zhang , Yu-Zhen Xue  Biological synthesis of nicotinamide mononucleotide 2021

PMID: 34626279 DOI: 10.1007/s10529-021-03191-1

5.   Synthesis of NMN: Greener and More Efficient, Pharma Sources, Yantian ,February 19, 2021